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  1. Regal Beloit | Motor Doctor
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This makes it almost impossible to distinguish the material used in the motor windings. Other than understanding the application and the limitations of aluminum, you typically have no way of knowing if you have a motor with aluminum or copper windings. The nearest wholesaler is 75 miles away, and they close at 5: The question you always face in emergency situations is: You do have one element in your favor when replacing motors in an emergency--NEMA provides you with a set of minimum standards for performance and mechanical interchangeability of motors.

Even with these standards, however, emergency replacements represent a particular challenge for the service technician. There are some motors built specifically for replacement purposes, and you should be familiar with these products and have them on your repair truck. You can use them with the confidence that they will do the job for an extended period of time in an emergency situation. In many cases, however, the advice I have provided is to get you through the emergency at hand. Good practice dictates that you return to the job site with an exact replacement as quickly as possible.

Among the many mysteries of life is the question of why the North American and Middle Eastern standard for line frequency is 60 hertz and why Europe uses 50 hertz. While you may not need this information every day, in our increasingly global economy, it may come in handy. Actually, frequency is one of two potential issues that electric motor manufacturers face when selling to international customers.

The second concern is voltage, but this is a relatively simple problem because most electrical equipment is designed to operate between plus and minus 10 percent of its rated voltage. To determine compatibility, you just need to know if the voltage source falls within the voltage range of the equipment in question.

How to wire a DC motor to a switch and a battery

The issue of line frequency expressed in a unit called hertz can be a bit more perplexing, especially when magnetic devices such as motors, equipment with transformers, or equipment with magnetic ballasts fluorescent or vapor-type lamps come into play. One critical relationship between line frequency and magnetic devices is efficiency.

The physics of electric circuits tells us that AC magnetic devices increase in efficiency as line frequency increases. Just build your power systems and devices to the highest frequency possible. Another physical characteristic to keep in mind is that current flow in a conductor tends to be closer to the surface of the conductor as frequency increases. So as the frequency goes up, solid conductors begin to resemble hollow pipes as the electrons making up the current flow migrate to the outer surfaces of the conductors. At these higher frequencies, the energy of the electrons has a tendency to actually leave the surface of the conductor.

A common example of this principle in action is radio transmission. As the frequencies get higher, all of the energy can be made to leave the conductor in a form of energy called radio waves. This also helps explain why overhead power lines tend to interfere with radio reception the annoying cycle hum. What you are hearing is energy loss from the power lines becoming a radio wave that is intercepted by the radio receiver. Consequently, the designers of electrical devices must strike a balance: So the evolution of 50 and 60 hertz systems developed as a result of this need for balance, with additional influences coming from politics and geographic considerations.

North America and other regions struck the balance at 60 hertz, while Europe settled on 50 hertz. You probably realize by now that frequency is a parameter for motor selection and application. What you may not realize is that a motor designed to operate at the lower 50 hertz frequency may operate in a satisfactory manner at 60 hertz, at least from an efficiency and heat loss standpoint. This is because a 50 hertz motor contains added material to make up for the modestly decreased efficiency found at the lower line frequency.

On the other hand, applying a 60 hertz motor to a 50 hertz line frequency application is more problematic. A motor designed to operate efficiently at 60 hertz may not have enough active material copper and iron to sustain efficiency at 50 hertz. Heat loss and dissipation become issues. Another consideration is that some motors designed to operate on single-phase power may have an internal switch that is speed sensitive. At the lower frequency, the motor may never reach the normal switched operating speed.

The internal start switch will not open, and this will lead to burnout of the starting circuit. Anyone whose job involves servicing electric motors has encountered the problem of a missing nameplate. Other articles in this series have covered ways of determining the specifications of a motor lacking the nameplate, but what if you are trying to figure out how to wire that motor?

For some kinds of motors, principally motors with terminal-based connections, basic wiring is self evident. The terminal board itself usually has markings that indicate where line one and line two are to be connected. But what if you need to reverse that motor, use a different but available voltage setting, or have a motor that has nothing more than a bunch of color-coded or numbered leads coming out of it? The colors or numbers themselves are often a clue, but they alone may not provide sufficient information. There is always the trial and error method, but I don't recommend that because of the potential for destructive results.

Instead, the Motor Doctor's suggestion is to equip yourself with an ohmmeter don't settle for just a continuity tester and learn to perform a few simple tests with it. The first thing you'll need to discover is whether you're dealing with a three-phase motor.

You may already know this from the application, but another giveaway is that the lead wires of most three-phase motors are single colors, not multiple colors, and usually identified with numbers. If, on the other hand, the motor diameter is less than seven inches and has a terminal board, it is most likely a single-phase motor. For wiring a single-phase motor, the most important objective is to distinguish the starting circuit from the main winding.

These two circuits are isolated from one another electrically if the lead wires are separated and not in contact with each other. Initially, the ohmmeter can be used to determine which wire belongs to which circuit as well as checking continuity between leads. You should be able to isolate into two groups any leads which have continuity with one another.

The starting circuit is likely to isolate to two leads, the running circuit may have two or more leads that show continuity. If the running circuit has more than two leads, you will need to determine how those leads are to be used for voltage or speed changes. You'll need to use the ohmmeter as an ohmmeter and not as a continuity checker for the next step in the procedure. You'll want to use the lowest ohm scale your meter offers, as the typical winding resistance in motors such as these is less than ohms.

If the motor is a permanent split-capacitor motor, you're going to be looking for common and speed taps of the winding. Using the ohmmeter, find the pair of wires that has the highest resistence as measured in ohms. This will give you your common and lowest speed tap. Using each of these two leads in turn, find the pair that gives you the the second-highest resistance. This should provide you the common and second-lowest speed tap and should also allow you to isolate which of the two leads from the first test is the common.

In addition, note that the common lead in this type of motor is usually white or purple. If there are additional leads in the run widing group, continue to use the ohmmeter to test the now-identified common and additional leads. Descending resistance will give you ascending speeds. All is not lost if you don't have a diagram for a particular motor, at least not if you understand how to use and ohmmeter. As with any problem-solving exercise, the more tools you have at your disposal, the more effective you become in the field.

Motor efficiency remains one of the top issues in our industry, but when you talk about efficiency, often you're talking about trade-offs. In other words, it is relatively easy to make a motor efficient, if money is no object. But since cost is a factor, motor manufacturers keep seeking the right balance of increasing motor output without driving up the price of the product. Occasionally, a technician or service person will ask me, "why not just increase the output by increasing the voltage the current flow to the motor? To understand why, you need to become familiar with a physical characteristic called "hysteresis loss.

Think of the atoms of magnetic material as an unruly herd of cattle. Running electric current through the material will polarize these atoms, creating the magnetic field. But as I mentioned, this is an unruly herd, so it takes time for the current to bring all those atoms into formation. As you might suspect, when you reverse the current in an alternating current motor, it takes time for those atoms to get going in the opposite direction. And the amount of time is not necessarily the same as the time it took to get the herd moving properly in the first place. Without getting into a lengthy physics lecture, this process of reversing polarity produces heat or wasted energy.

This is known as hysteresis loss. And that helps explain why increasing the voltage into the motor will not necessarily increase the output. Instead, it can fight the resistance of magnetic materials to reverse polarity--and simply heat iron. For service technicians, this is also an explanation why a motor heats unexpectedly when the voltage supplied is higher than the device's nameplate voltage.

One way to overcome this situation is by using "magnetically soft" material. Magnetically soft material has atoms that readily reverse polarity a docile herd? Naturally, since the reversing process happens more quickly, there is less wasted energy. Here's where metallurgy comes into play. A motor rich in magnetically soft material will be more efficient, producing more work with less heat. And since the magnetic capacity of a motor also is influenced by the amount of active material more core, more laminations , the tendency might be to try to add as much magnetically soft material to your design as possible.

Magnetically soft materials, however, tend to be more expensive.

Regal Beloit | Motor Doctor

The motor manufacturer must find that proper blend of just enough magnetically soft material to do the work required without putting too big a dent in the customer's wallet. It's important to keep this struggle between performance and cost in mind when you talk to customers about energy-efficient motor-driven equipment. Yes, efficiency is probably more important to homeowners now than ever, but that efficient operation comes at a price. And motor manufacturers will keep working to strike that balance between motor performance, efficiency, and cost.

Electric motors, in essence, are conversion devices. They convert one form of energy electrical energy into another form mechanical energy. In the process, they consume power, and they do work. It is easy to be imprecise about these terms as well as the units of measurement we use in connection with the terms, such as horsepower, watts, and amps. So, here are some precise definitions of terms. It may be the work involved when several stagehands move a piano or when a gas engine moves an automobile. Appropriate examples for this article include water being moved through a pump by an electric motor or a garage door being lifted by a motor-driven opener.

A bulldozer is capable of moving a hill of earth much faster than a garden tractor, therefore we say the bulldozer is more powerful than the tractor. Before bulldozers and garden tractors, horses performed much of the heavy work needed by humans. Energy is stored in such things as coal, gasoline, and the food we eat.

For energy to be released, some chemical or mechanical action must be performed on whatever stores that energy. Coal is burned, gasoline is compressed and heated to make it explode in an internal combustion engine, and our bodies oxidize the food we eat. Electrical energy is produced mechanically by a generator or chemically by a battery.

As I said before, power includes a time factor. It takes more power to move the pound weight in our example 10 feet in one second than it would to move the same weight the same distance in two seconds. This power value is equivalent to one horsepower. Therefore, a four-horsepower electric motor would be able to move a 2,pound load 4 x a vertical distance of one foot in one second, or an 1,pound load two feet in one second. One horsepower equals watts.

Therefore, a horsepower motor also can be said to produce 7, watts of power. The input watts to this motor, however, will be higher because not all the electric power can be converted to mechanical power. Some of that input power is wasted in the form of heat. An electric motor does its work by turning a shaft. Having the precise, scientific definitions of terms not only enhances your understanding, it also helps you to better see the relationship of concepts such as efficiency and torque when you look at electric motors and their applications in the field.

Every service technician should have at least one multi-speed motor in his or her truck to help in making acceptable substitutions in the field. Multi-speed motors come in two basic varieties. The first variety has an extra set of windings called a booster winding that behaves like a transformer. The second variety comes with two distinct separate sets of windings.

So how do these motors work? Remember from last issue how you determine motor speed by the number of poles poles divided by the constant 7, gives you revolutions per minute. If the load is constant, you can increase the slip by weakening the strength of the spinning magnetic field. One way is to decrease the voltage to the magnet wire that makes up the poles. You can decrease the voltage externally by using a speed control or internally through the use of the booster winding in a multi-speed motor. In other words, the booster winding acts like a transformer, changing incoming line voltage to a lower voltage at the windings.

The booster winding may come with taps that allow you to apply different voltages to the poles, creating different speeds in the motor.

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This is because slip occurs when the load works against the weakened magnetic field. Consequently, this design is generally unsuitable for loads other than fans. The second type of multi-speed motor with two completely separate sets of windings allows you to use one or the other speed at a given time. Having two pole sets wound independently offers you more flexibility to produce constant horsepower in mechanical applications since you are energizing just one set of poles at a time.

Knowing this, you can begin to appreciate the versatility of multi-speed motors in the field. To achieve the correct results, simply select the correct tap and carefully insulate the two unused taps. The result would be a motor that produces the same performance, similar fan noise characteristics, and the same static pressure as the original single-speed model. Multi-speed motors give the service technician another versatile tool in the field. That's why is always good to have some in stock for emergency substitutions. One way to determine that you are making good replacements in the field is to understand the concept of motor speed so that you can match the speed of one AC induction motor to another.

At the same time, you also need to become familiar with the concept of poles, since poles represent one key to a successful replacement. Every AC induction motor has poles, just like a magnet. Unlike a simple magnet, these poles are formed by bundles of magnet wire called windings wound together in slots of the stator core.

In most cases, you can look inside the motor and count the number of poles in the winding: The number of poles, combined with the alternating current line frequency HZ , are all that determine the no-load revolutions per minute RPM of the motor. So all four-pole motors will run at the same speed under no-load conditions, all six-pole motors will run at the same speed, and so on. The mathematical formula to remember in helping make these calculation is the number of cycles HZ times 60 for seconds in a minute times two for the positive and negative pulses in the cycle divided by the number of poles.

Using this formula, you can see that a four-pole motor operating on the bench under no-load conditions runs at 1, RPM 7, divided by four poles. Note that when an AC motor is loaded, the spinning magnetic field in the stator does not change speed. So, going back to our spinning four-pole motor, it operates at 1, RPM under no-load conditions and approximately 1, RPM under load. Motors of this speed are commonly found in belted applications such as blowers, fans, air-handling equipment, compressors, and some conveyors. Two-pole motors often are found in pump applications, such as sump pumps, swimming pool pumps, or water recirculating equipment.

It is beneficial to become aware of the different speed-related sounds motors make. They are often used for air-handling equipment, direct-drive applications, window fans, furnace blowers, room air conditioners, heat pumps, and other equipment where the relatively slower motor speed makes for quieter operation. All can come in either totally open, totally enclosed, or combination models, adding to their versatility.

They are being used in applications where customers expect quieter operation, such as room air conditioners and outdoor heat pump applications. Less-common pole configurations include pole motors RPM that are used in applications requiring slow speeds, such as washing machines, and pole motors RPM unloaded , often found in ceiling fans. When making replacements, there is one key thing to remember: Understand that nameplate speed is an approximation of the rotor speed under load.

Wye Configuration, Low Voltage

You can tolerate some variation here, since motors are designed to accommodate a range of loaded speeds. If the other characteristics match nameplate amps, etc. Learning to understand the relationship between motor speed and poles will help you become a more knowledgeable, effective service technician in the field.

The great copper windings versus aluminum windings debate goes on. It remains a topic of discussion today as engineers in a variety of industries question whether the quality and performance of aluminum windings can possibly compare with copper. Some of us remember the s, when aluminum house wiring was the subject of much attention because of the apparent fire hazards it created. It turned out that the cause of the house fires was not the wire itself, but rather connection problems.

The junctions would become so hot that the heat would transfer to the wire itself, eventually deteriorating the wire insulation. Consequently, all forms of aluminum wire received a bad rap. Aluminum is a good conductor and, when applied properly, performs quite well. There are, however, two factors to keep in mind.

To compensate, aluminum magnet wire must have larger cross-sections than the equivalent copper wire to offer the same conductance. This means windings wound with aluminum wire will likely have greater volume compared with an equivalent copper wire motor. The second consideration is properly connecting the ends of the aluminum magnet wire. The reason for this goes back to your high school chemistry course. You may remember that aluminum oxidizes much faster than other metals—in fact, if exposed to air, powdered aluminum will completely oxidize in a few days, forming a fine white powder.

But, when exposed to air, fabricated aluminum sheets, wire, etc. To make a proper connection that ensures conductivity, the oxide layer of the aluminum magnet wire must be completely pierced and yet pierced in such a way to prevent air from coming in any further contact with the aluminum. Motor manufacturers have developed high-pressure, piercing crimp connectors to do the job.

These improved connection methods have helped make motors with aluminum windings every bit as reliable as motors with copper windings. It must be pointed out that motor efficiency is a much trickier issue in the great copper versus aluminum debate. It is possible to match the power performance of a motor wound with aluminum to a motor wound with copper wire.

In situations where efficiency and volume are not issues such as where the motor only has to work occasionally or for very short periods of time , aluminum magnet wires make an acceptable motor. The bottom line is that, in terms of motor quality, reliability, and life span, aluminum windings can be every bit as good as copper-wound motors. Comparisons are fair as long as you keep efficiency issues apart when looking at copper versus aluminum. One of the most frequent challenges you'll face as a service technician is determining if a replacement motor that is not an exact duplicate of the original is suitable for an application.

Often, you can use the motor's nameplate to help you in making the selection, but a nameplate doesn't always provide you with everything you need to know. Take nameplate amps, for example. It is common practice to determine the power input of two motors by comparing nameplate amps of the original motor with those of the replacement. In other words, if the replacement motor's rated amps are at least as high as the original, you are reasonably safe in using it in the application. This practice works best when you're working with motor types whose efficiency varies little from one design to another.

A good example would be three-phase motors. But, the nameplate may not tell the entire story, and as a superior service technician, you need to be aware of the chapters that are missing.


Motor nameplates typically do not include input watts as a power measurement, nor do they identify the motor's efficiency. In certain applications, these criteria may be critical factors in deciding if a replacement motor can do the job. One case where the nameplate-amp comparison often breaks down is when you're working with single-phase motors.

These motors which include permanent split capacitor motors, shaded pole motors, as well as split phase and capacitor-start versions, may vary widely in terms of efficiency within a single motor design. You have no way of knowing that, however, simply by looking at the nameplate.

So what happens to the nameplate amp comparison in this instance. Since nameplate amps reflect total current consumption of the motor including current converted to output power and current lost to heat , higher nameplate amps on a single-phase motor can just as likely indicate poorer conversion efficiency as increased power output.

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Faced with this challenge, the service technician dealing with single-phase motors needs to look beyond amps and compare the horsepower of the replacement motor to the original. If nameplate amps and horsepower compare favorably, you likely will have a suitable replacement. To be certain, however, it's important that you test the replacement motor in the application itself.

This is especially true when you remember that there is not a single industry standard for motor efficiency. Best practice is to measure the amps through the motor terminal or power leads of the replacement and compare that reading with the amp rating shown on the replacement motor's nameplate. When you perform this test, make absolutely sure that the motor is in its normal operating state with all belts, blowers, baffles, and enclosures in place. If you do not duplicate the motor's normal working environment, you will not get a true reading of the motor's total current consumption.

You very possibly will end up with an overloaded condition and eventually an unhappy customer. Motor manufacturers are becoming increasingly sensitive to motor efficiency and are working to design motors that deliver higher power while consuming the same-or fewer-watts. All of this product development means that you, as a service technician, will probably see motors in the field of similar power output but with significantly different ampacity.

By being aware of these differences and understanding that you won't find this important information just by looking at the nameplate, you will be able to provide correct replacements-and better service-to your customers. After all, the perception of noise is extremely subjective just ask the parents of teenagers.

Not only does the range of human hearing differ considerably among people, but it also varies by specific frequency. Another frustration is that noise is not an easy condition to measure. Part of that difficulty goes back to the subjective perception of noise. A more technical reason is that noise is the perceived result of a complex interaction of sound waves.

Measuring noise can be like measuring chaos. All noise has a mechanical origin, which is to say it is the result of waves of pressure transmitted through air as the result of the mechanical movement of some object. In a motor, the sources of mechanical noise are numerous:. So-called "electrical noise" is the result of mechanical pressure produced when the parts of a motor that can be magnetized are attracted and repelled from one another.

This happens when the magnetic field that drives the motor alternates. Additionally, since the motor has a spinning internal part namely, the rotor imbalances are transferred to the frame of the motor as noise. Noise inherent in a motor generally cannot be "cured" by the motor installer. But short of specifying a low-noise motor for the application, there are several things the savvy installer can do to minimize the effects of inherent motor noise. The first course of action is fairly straightforward—isolation. Isolation breaks that efficient path to the motor-driven device. This is based on the concept of harmonics. Harmonics are a set of specific frequencies that noisy mechanical equipment tends to favor as vibration frequencies. Unfortunately, harmonic frequencies are not easy to calculate, as they are the result of complex interactions of speed, mass, and separation or the distance between moving assemblies.

Though difficult to calculate, you can deal with the effect of harmonic frequencies effectively by changing the speed, mass, or separation distance of the motor-driven apparatus. For example, in a belt-driven application, pulley diameters could be changed to vary the speed of the driven load. Sometimes changing the density hardness of isolation devices, such as the rubber pads or resilient rings is enough to move a mechanical assembly off a harmonic frequency.

Where space and application permit, changing the length of the train of driven equipment can also move that equipment off a harmonic frequency. Although subjective, motor noise is often the cause for call-backs by unhappy customers. Many times, you can solve the problem easily with isolation. But when the noise persists, a working knowledge of harmonic frequencies may mean the difference between a happy customer and an unhappy one. Open All Close All. This is in fact the case, and you can determine this speed by using the following formula: Caring for your small motors sleeve bearing system.

Treating a motor that "nuisance trips". The basics of air flow. Underload can cause excessive heat in two ways: First, underloading a motor designed to move air may not produce enough cooling air to dissipate motor heat; Second, a motor not operating at its designed load may be operating at less than peak efficiency. What's All That Racket? You can break this sound path in one of three ways: Separate the motor base from the surface on which it is mounted with a resilient pad; Couple the motor output shaft to the driven equipment with a "soft coupling" one that incorporates a rubber bushing ; Make a substitution from a rigid-based fractional horsepower motor to an equivalently rated one with a resilient base.

Here are some suggestions: For a belt-driven device, try making a slight change in drive speed by varying the pulley sizes; If the application uses rubber isolation like a soft coupling but appears ineffective, try changing the density hardness of the isolation devices. This may be enough to move the assembly off harmonic frequency; Where space and the application permit, you can try changing the length and configuration of the drive train by adding or subtracting a belt length or chain link; Once you understand the role of harmonics in creating noise, you can direct your efforts in the field to solving the problem by tackling those harmonics.

Aluminum as a winding material. In Case of Emergency. Safety is your first—and foremost—consideration. Never do anything that your experience, common sense, or good practice would tell you is unsafe. If the motor you are using as a replacement is not an exact match with the original, the minimum check you must do is to measure the input amps to the substitute motor. Never exceed the input amps specified by the manufacturer for that motor. Second, consider any emergency replacement a temporary solution.

This is particularly true when you are using a motor that does not exactly match the original in terms of manufacturer specifications. Keeping those precautions in mind, let me give you six possibilities you can consider: In general, you may make substitutions for oil-filled run capacitors on permanent split capacitor PSC motors by going to the next standard or stock microfarad rating. It is always safe to use a capacitor with a higher voltage rating—but it is never safe to attempt to use a capacitor with a lower voltage rating. Another possibility when substituting capacitors is to wire them together in parallel to add microfarad ratings.

You also may use the same procedures when making substitutions for the start capacitor on a motor. Fractional horsepower direct drive motors that are designed for air handling applications generally are either shaded pole or PSC type motors. You may always safely replace a shaded pole motor with the equivalent rated PSC motor.

Keep in mind however, that it is never safe to replace a PSC motor with the equivalent shaded pole design. The reason is that the relatively lower efficiency of the shaded pole motor will create problems with heat dissipation. This advice applies to all squirrel cage induction motors, including single phase shaded pole, PSC, split phase, and capacitor-start split phase as well as most three-phase motors. When making replacements here, the important factor to keep in mind is to match the number of poles of the replacement motor to that of the original.

This is not a tricky process. Remember that the relationship of the number of poles to nameplate speed causes the speed of that squirrel cage motor to fall into discrete bands. For example, two-pole motor speeds cluster around 3, revolutions per minute typically ranging from 3, to 3, RPM. The point to remember is that nameplate speeds need not match exactly—but the number of poles must.

This advice applies primarily to single-phase, direct-drive motors. It is acceptable emergency practice to replace a multi-speed motor with the equivalent-rated single speed motor, and vice versa. Remember to properly treat the unused speed taps of any multi-speed motor used to substitute for a single-speed design. Each unused tap connection must be electrically insulated individually at the electrical connection.

Leaving unused taps uninsulated or connected together likely will result in motor failure. Any motor built to NEMA standards must be capable of delivering its nameplate horsepower without overheating over a voltage range of plus or minus 10 percent of its nameplate voltage. This means that a volt motor could replace a motor rated from volts to volts.

It also means you could replace a volt motor with a volt motor volts minus 10 percent equals volts. Be careful when making this substitution. Most local power companies specify that line voltage will be plus or minus 5 percent of nominal voltage. This means a volt system might have actual line voltage as low as volts. Properly designed, they are capable of operating in a range that extends from 10 percent below the lower of the two voltages to 10 percent above the higher voltage. Take it from the Motor Doctor—you need some of these motors on your repair truck.

These are generally designed to operate under a wider range of environmental conditions than an equivalently rated open motor. For that reason, an enclosed motor can usually replace the equivalent-rated open motor in an emergency substitution—but not vice versa. Remember, however, that an enclosed motor may have a harder time dissipating heat generated during operation. That would make it less than an ideal candidate in any enclosure that does not allow for the free exchange of air.

If the motor comes with thermal protection, it may be prone to nuisance tripping. This line frequency stuff makes my head hertz. Portions of Canada used 50 hertz until the s and the completion of the Continent-wide power network. Power frequency on most aircraft is hertz. This is due to the very short power transmission distances combined with the need for very high efficiency lightweight motors.

Magnetics, heat, and motor efficiency. Work, power, and energy defined. Basics of multi-speed motors. Login to Your Account. Results 1 to 14 of How do I wire it into a Dayton drum switch. You DO have a wiring diagram. It's there on the data plate and it shows how to hook up the leads for volt or volt service. To have forward-reverse operation, you need to separate out leads T5 and T8 since they are your starting winding leads. As it says, "interchange T5 and T8 for CW" which means that if you hook it up as shown on the diagram, it will turn counter clockwise.

If you reverse the leads T5 and T8 it will turn clockwise. The job of the drum switch is to apply volts to the main winding and volts to the start winding AND to give you the option of changing how T5 and T8 are connectedeither in phase with the main winding or out of phase with the main winding.

The exact terminal hook-up inside the switch will depend on how the switch is configured inside. There should be some information about that on the inside of the cover of the drum switch. You have plenty of motor for just about any 9" or 10" South Bend application! You should show us the wiring diagram for you switch just to be sure we are talking about the same one.

I drew up a diagram using a guess for which type of switch you have. Here's the best shot I could do.